Genu Recurvatum

Below is an image of genu (knee) recurvatum in which the knee has the structural capability to bow backward which can lead to mechanical instability.


  • Secondary to intra uterine posture
    • These are flexible and respond to conservative management
    • Gentle manipulation should start at birth
    • Tibia is brought posterior to the femur as the knee is flexed
    • After manipulation the desired correction may be held with a cast
  • Severe cases may be associated with congenital dislocation of the knee
    • Is most common with arthrogryposis and myelodysplasia
    • Often associated with club feet, CDH, and other congenital anomalies
    • Treatment
      • Begin nonoperative management as above
      • If < 30° flexion at 3 months, needs operative release

Laxity of ligaments

  • e.g. in prolonged splinting in hyperextension and neurological problems

Bone injury

  • May cause faulty growth or malunion of a fracture


  • Related to disability and age
  • Generalised laxity needs no treatment
  • Splinting or muscular strengthening